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R for Bigginers / R TUTORIAL : 4 - Run R code | Execute R code
« on: August 30, 2018, 11:05:54 PM »
We can run R codes two ways :

    We can run the codes inside the Console. Our data will be stored in the Global Environment but no history is recorded. We won't be able to replicate the results once R is closed. We need to write the codes all over again. This method is not recommended if we want to replicate our save our codes


Write the code in the script. We can write as many lines of codes as we want. To run the code, we simple select the rows we want to return. Finally, click on run. We can see the output in the Console. We can save our script and open it later. Our results won't we lost.


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MS Word / Introduction to Microsoft Word
« on: August 30, 2018, 08:59:11 PM »
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running the Classic Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1988), OS/2 (1989), Microsoft Windows (1989), SCO Unix (1994), and macOS (formerly OS X; 2001). Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office.

Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx filename extension.

MS Word Layout

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EXCEL / Customization Microsoft Excel Environment
« on: August 29, 2018, 12:05:11 AM »
Here going to look at;

    Customization the ribbon
    Setting the colour theme
    Settings for formulas
    Proofing settings
    Save settings

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EXCEL / Introduction to Microsoft Excel
« on: August 28, 2018, 11:30:26 PM »
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office.

Microsoft Excel comes in handy when we want to record, analyze and store numeric data.

Understanding the layout of Microsoft Excel

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Introduction / System Requirements for Microsoft Office
« on: August 26, 2018, 06:09:29 PM »
Office 2016 suites for home

Office Home & Student 2016
Office Home & Student 2016


FeatureComputer and processor   1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster x86-bit or x64-bit processor with SSE2 instruction set
FeatureMemory   2 GB RAM
FeatureHard disk   3.0 GB available disk space

PC: 1024 x 768 1024 by 768 screen resolution
FeatureGraphics   Graphics hardware acceleration requires a DirectX 10 graphics card.
FeatureOperating system   Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, or Windows Server 2008 R2For the best experience, use the latest version of any operating system.
FeatureBrowser   The current version of Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Safari, Chrome, or Firefox. Get more details.
Feature.NET versiondot NET version   .NET 3.5 required. Some features may require .NET 4.0, 4.5, or 4.6 CLR to also be installed.
FeatureOther   Internet functionality requires an Internet connection. Fees may apply.
Feature   A touch-enabled device is required to use any multi-touch functionality. But, all features and functionality are always available by using a keyboard, mouse, or other standard or accessible input device. Note that touch features are optimized for use with Windows 8, Windows 8.1 or Windows 10.

   Product functionality and graphics may vary based on your system configuration. Some features may require additional or advanced hardware or server connectivity.

   Certain features require OneDrive.

   Microsoft account

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Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on 1 August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On 10 July 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide.

Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. The most current desktop version is Office 2016 for Windows and macOS, released on 22 September 2015 and 9 July 2015, respectively.

More recently, Microsoft developed Office Mobile, which are free-to-use versions of Office applications for mobile devices. Microsoft also produces and runs Office Online, a web-based version of core Office apps, which is included as part of a Microsoft account.

Components of Desktop MS Office :

    Microsoft Word : a word processor included in Microsoft Office. The first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983.
    Microsoft Excel : a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft and included in Microsoft Office. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Macintosh on September 30, 1985, and the first Windows version was 2.05 (to synchronize with the Macintosh version 2.2) in November 1987.
    Microsoft PowerPoint : a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text, graphics, and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. It was released on April 20, 1987, initially for Macintosh computers only. Microsoft acquired PowerPoint for $14 million three months after it appeared.
    Microsoft Access : a database management system for Windows that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools. Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases.
    Microsoft Outlook : (not to be confused with Outlook Express, or Outlook on the web) a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, and Schedule+ starting in Office 97, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late 1990s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Office 2001, it introduced an alternative application with a slightly different feature set called Microsoft Entourage. It reintroduced Outlook in Office 2011, replacing Entourage.
    Microsoft OneNote : a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over the Internet or a network. OneNote was initially introduced as a standalone app that was not included in any of Microsoft Office 2003 editions. However, OneNote eventually became a core component of Microsoft Office; with the release of Microsoft Office 2013, OneNote was included in all Microsoft Office offerings. OneNote is also available as a web app on Office Online, a freemium (and later freeware) Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Android, and Symbian, and a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
    Microsoft Publisher : a desktop publishing app for Windows mostly used for designing brochures, labels, calendars, greeting cards, business cards, newsletters, web site, and postcards.
    Skype for Business : an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real time, it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app that is neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name.

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Windows Installation

Steps to install Python on Windows machine.

    Open a Web browser and go to
    Look for
    Download the latest version for Windows,

    Click in the download button.
    From the list of different way of installing you can choose any one. But I recommand "executable installer" which leads to a .exe file. Choose executable installer with right version of windows (64bit/x64 or 32bit/x86).
    Run the downloaded file. This brings up the Python install wizard, which is really easy to use. Just accept the default settings, wait until the install is finished, and you are done.

Unix and Linux Installation

Steps to install Python on Unix/Linux machine.

    Open a Web browser and go to
    Follow the link to download zipped source code available for Unix/Linux.
    Download and extract files.
    Editing the Modules/Setup file if you want to customize some options.
    run ./configure script
    make install

This installs Python at standard location /usr/local/bin and its libraries at /usr/local/lib/pythonXX where XX is the version of Python.
Macintosh Installation

Recent Macs come with Python installed, but it may be several years out of date. See for instructions on getting the current version along with extra tools to support development on the Mac. For older Mac OS's before Mac OS X 10.3 (released in 2003), MacPython is available.

Jack Jansen maintains it and you can have full access to the entire documentation at his website − You can find complete installation details for Mac OS installation.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

You can run Python from a Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment as well, if you have a GUI application on your system that supports Python.

    Unix − IDLE is the very first Unix IDE for Python.
    Windows − PythonWin is the first Windows interface for Python and is an IDE with a GUI.
    Macintosh − The Macintosh version of Python along with the IDLE IDE is available from the main website, downloadable as either MacBinary or BinHex'd files.

Select a IDE for Windows Machine

(for more information click on the Names)

For Data Science available popular IDEs :

    Jupyter Notebook

Or Select a Scientific Python distribution.

I recommend a Scientific Python distribution, If you can afford 4GB-6GB of space in your hard disk. Otherwise install Spyder or PyCharm.

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How / How to install PyCharm? | PyCharm IDE
« on: August 21, 2018, 12:18:54 AM »
Installation requirements
Hardware requirements

    4 GB RAM minimum, 8 GB RAM recommended
    1.5 GB hard disk space + at least 1 GB for caches
    1024x768 minimum screen resolution

Software requirements

JRE 1.8 is bundled with the PyCharm distribution. You do not need to install Java on your computer to run PyCharm.

Python 2.4 or higher, Jython, PyPy or IronPython are required for Python development.
Windows   macOS   Linux
32-bit or 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows 10, 8, 7 (SP1)   macOS 10.10 or later
(only 64-bit systems are supported)   

    OS Linux (note that a 32-bit JDK is not bundled, so a 64-bit system is recommended)
    KDE, Gnome or Unity desktop environment recommended
    GCC/C++ or Clang

PyCharm is available in three editions: Professional, Community, and Educational (Edu). The Community and Edu editions are open-source projects and they are free, but they has less features. PyCharm Edu provides courses and helps you learn programming with Python. The Professional edition is commercial, and provides an outstanding set of tools and features.

PyCharm Editions Comparison
General comparison

Supported only
in Professional Edition

    Web development with JavaScript, CoffeeScript, TypeScript, HTML/CSS and more
    Frameworks: Django, Flask, Google App Engine, Pyramid, web2py
    Remote development capabilities: Remote run/debug, VM support
    Database & SQL support
    UML & SQLAlchemy Diagrams
    Scientific Tools

Supported in Professional and Community Editions

    Intelligent Editor
    Graphical Debugger
    Code Inspections
    Version Control Integration

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How / How to install Spyder ? | Spyder IDE
« on: August 20, 2018, 11:58:42 PM »
Spyder is quite easy to install on any popular OS.

Just the read the following instructions carefully.
Installing on Windows Vista/7/8/10
The easy way

Spyder is already included in these Python Scientific Distributions:


You can start using it immediately after installing one of them (you only need to install one!).
The hard way

If you want to install Spyder directly, you need to follow these steps:

    Install the essential requirements:
        The Python programming language
        PyQt5 (recommended) or PyQt4

    Install Spyder and its dependencies by running this command:

    pip install spyder

Updating Spyder

You can update Spyder by:

    Updating Anaconda, WinPython or Python(x,y).

    Or using this command (in case you don?t use any of those scientific distributions):

    pip install --upgrade spyder


    This command will also update all Spyder dependencies

Installing on MacOS X

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What / What is WinPython ? | Install WinPython
« on: August 20, 2018, 11:32:17 PM »
WinPython is a free open-source portable distribution of the Python programming language for Windows 7/8/10 and scientific and educational usage.

It is a full-featured (see our Wiki) Python-based scientific environment:

    Designed for scientists, data-scientists, and education (thanks to NumPy, SciPy, Sympy, Matplotlib, Pandas, pyqtgraph, etc.):
        interactive data processing and visualization using Python with Spyder and Jupyter/IPython, or IDLE
        out-of-the-box working Compiler (Mingw64) for Python 3.4, fully integrated Cython and Numba! See included example
        connectors (cffi, odbc, rpy2, scilab2py, requests, ...) for advanced users
        Runs out of the box(*) on any Windows 8+ with 2GB Ram (Jupyter Notebook will require a recent browser)
        The WinPython folder can be moved to any location (**) (local, network, USB drive) with most of the application settings
        You can install as many WinPython distributions as you want on the same machine: each one is isolated and self-consistent
        These installations can be of different versions of Python (3.5/3.6/3.7/...) and different architectures (32bit/64bit)
        The integrated WinPython Package Manager (WPPM) helps installing, uninstalling or upgrading Python packages
        It's also possible to install or upgrade packages using pip from the WinPython command prompt
        A configuration file allows you to set environment variables at runtime

WinPython is something different from other Python Distributions (see historic motivation and concept):

    non-invasive: WinPython lives entirely in its own directory, without any OS installation
    customizable: add your missing packages, zip the WinPython directory and give it to your students
    do your own version: a winpython-creator kit is made available for you

Download WinPython

All Versions are available here.

Portable or not, the choice is yours!

WinPython is a portable application, so the user should not expect any integration into Windows explorer during installation. However, the WinPython Control Panel allows to "register" your distribution to Windows (see screenshot below).

WinPython Register

Registering your WinPython installation will:

    associate file extensions .py, .pyc and .pyo to Python interpreter
    register Python icons in Windows explorer
    add context menu entries Edit with IDLE and Edit with Spyder for .py files
    register WinPython as a standard Python distribution (standard Python Windows installers will see WinPython in Windows registry)

That is exactly what the official Python installer would do to your machine: in other words, you can have it both ways!

(*) For recent WinPython, Windows 7/8 users may have to install Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2017

(**) For best Winpython 2018-01 experience, it is recommended to have Winpython base directory path smaller than 37 characters. example: C:\Users\xxxxxxxx\Downloads\WinPython

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What / What is Python(x,y)? | Install Python(x,y)
« on: August 20, 2018, 11:16:49 PM »
Python(x,y) is a free scientific and engineering development software for numerical computations, data analysis and data visualization based on Python programming language, Qt graphical user interfaces and Spyder interactive scientific development environment.

With Python(x,y), one can do:

    interactive calculations including for example 2D and 3D plotting or symbolic maths,
    simple functionnal programming (with MATLAB-like syntax) as well as powerful object-oriented programming,
    scientific projects development from the simplest script to the most sophisticated application thanks to Qt development framework and Spyder development environment,
    parallel computing on multicore/processors computers or even clusters (with Parallel Python),

And A lot more...

What is exactly Python(x,y)?

Python(x,y) is a scientific-oriented Python Distribution based on Qt and Spyder - see the Plugins page. Its purpose is to help scientific programmers used to interpreted languages (such as MATLAB or IDL) or compiled languages (C/C++ or Fortran) to switch to Python. C/C++ or Fortran programmers should appreciate to reuse their code "as is" by wrapping it so it can be called directly from Python scripts.

(MATLAB? is a registered trademark of The MathWorks. IDL? is a registered trademark of ITT Visual Information Solutions.)
Main features

Python(x,y) has five main features:

    collecting scientific-oriented Python libraries and development environment tools ;
    collecting almost all free related documentation ;
    providing a quick guide to get started in Python / Qt / Spyder ;
    providing an all-in-one setup program, so the user can install or uninstall all these packages and features by clicking on one button only.

Why Python?

In many ways, Python is far more superior to other scientific languages: it's a general-purpose language (e.g. with powerful GUI, I/O, internet, and database libraries), it's free and open-source, fundamentally object-oriented, very portable, extensible and embeddable, and so on. However, Python libraries generally suffer from a lack of documentation, even if the growing community contributes everyday with detailed tutorials on many topics.
Why a Python distribution for scientists?

Because testing all libraries, choosing the right one for the right usage, and grabbing all the free documentation on the internet takes time. Moreover, one needs some perspective to elaborate its own coherent development framework (i.e. Python libraries and development environment).

Python(x,y) was created for :

    rapid prototyping, using the enhanced Python shell known as IPython ;
    small/big projects (application-like) development, using Spyder - a powerful and interactive cross-platform Integrated Development Environment (IDE) ;
    scientific purpose: scientific computing, numerical simulations, signal processing, image processing, physics (experiments and modeling), engineering, ...


Python(x, y) was concieved, developed and maintained by Pierre Raybaut since 2008 with the above goals. Gabi Davar joined the project as a maintainer since 2011. Pierre moved to work on other projects since 2013 leaving Gabi as the primary maintainer.

Download Python(x, y)

You can download Python(x,y) from here.

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How / How to install Anaconda Distribution?
« on: August 20, 2018, 10:57:38 PM »
System requirements

    License: Free use and redistribution under the terms of the Anaconda End User License Agreement.
    Operating system: Windows Vista or newer, 64-bit macOS 10.10+, or Linux, including Ubuntu, RedHat, CentOS 6+, and others.
    Windows XP supported on Anaconda versions 2.2 and earlier. See Old package lists. Download it from our archive.
    System architecture: 64-bit x86, 32-bit x86 with Windows or Linux, Power8 or Power9.
    Minimum 3 GB disk space to download and install

General installation information

On Windows, macOS, and Linux, it is best to install Anaconda for the local user, which does not require administrator permissions and is the most robust type of installation. However, if you need to, you can install Anaconda system wide, which does require administrator permissions.

Silent mode install

You can use silent mode to automatically accept default settings and have no screen prompts appear during installation.

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What / What is Scientific Python Distributions ?
« on: August 20, 2018, 10:38:15 PM »
Scientific Python Distributions are Python distributions,  which include all the essential packages including the key packages required for Data Science and Scientific studies.

    Anaconda: A free distribution of Python with scientific packages. Supports Linux, Windows and Mac.
    Enthought Canopy: The free and commercial versions include the core scientific packages. Supports Linux, Windows and Mac.
    Python(x,y): A free distribution including scientific packages, based around the Spyder IDE. Windows and Ubuntu; Py2 only.
    WinPython: Another free distribution including scientific packages and the Spyder IDE. Windows only, but more actively maintained and supports the latest Python 3 versions.
    Pyzo: A free distribution based on Anaconda and the IEP interactive development environment. Supports Linux, Windows and Mac.

I recommand Anaconda Distribution above all.

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